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SAN DIEGO—Walter Munk, the high-spirited scientist-explorer whose insights on the nature of winds, waves and currents earned him the nickname the "Einstein of the Oceans," died Friday. He was 101.

Munk died of pneumonia at Seiche, his seaside home near the University of California, San Diego, a campus he helped make famous through decades of work at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

His death was announced by his wife, Mary Munk. "We thought he would live forever, she said. His legacy will be his passion for the ocean, which was endless."

Munk was always in or around water, trying to figure out how waves broke, where currents moved and why changes in the ocean's makeup affected Earth's climate.

He greatly improved surf forecasting, helping American troops land more safely during the D-Day invasion in World War II. He monitored a hydrogen bomb blast from a tiny raft in the early 1950s and was showered with radioactive fallout.

And he was among the first wave of scientists to pull on scuba gear and explore wondrous and wicked oceans.

"Walter was the most brilliant scientist I have ever known," said Pradeep Khosla, UC San Diego's chancellor. "I stand in awe at the impact (he) had on UC San Diego, from his countless discoveries that put the university on the map as a great research institution, to his global leadership on the great scientific issues of our time."

Margaret Leinen, director of Scripps Oceanography, said: "Walter Munk has been a world treasure for ocean science and geophysics. He has been a guiding force, a stimulating force, a provocative force in science for 80 years. While one of the most distinguished and honored scientists in the world, Walter never rested on his accomplishments. He was always interested in sparking a discussion about what's coming next."

Munk was born on Oct. 19, 1917, and grew up in Austria, where he shrugged off studies during his high school years to indulge his great passion—skiing.

His parents later sent him to Columbia University, hoping that he'd straighten out. He did, but in his own way. He immersed himself in studying when he wasn't running the university's ski club.

He later became smitten with a girl and followed her to La Jolla, where he developed the deepest passion of his life, the sea.

He is survived by his wife, Mary Coakley Munk; daughters Edie Munk of La Jolla and Kendall Munk of State College, Pa.; and three grandsons, Walter, Lucien and Maxwell.