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story.lead_photo.caption People wearing face masks to help curb the spread of the coronavirus shop around at the Kuromon Ichiba market in Osaka, western Japan, Tuesday, April 20, 2021. (AP Photo/Hiro Komae)

If 2020 was the summer of the pandemic-enforced road trip, many people seem to be hoping that 2021 will be the summer they can travel overseas. But that's a big "if."

Roadblocks abound, among them the rise of variant cases in popular destinations like Europe and confusion about the role that vaccine "passports" will play as people begin crossing borders. The recent pause on Johnson & Johnson's coronavirus vaccine adds a new wrinkle.

Still, there is reason for optimism. The number of vaccine doses administered each day in the United States has tripled in the last few months, and President Joe Biden has said the United States is still on track to vaccinate every American adult who wants it by the end of May. Globally, the number of shots has been rising, with more than 840 million vaccines administered worldwide.

Currently, Americans are restricted from entering many countries for nonessential trips. Travelers can check the U.S. State Department website for specific country entry restrictions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website to view recommendations for international travelers (vaccinated and unvaccinated), and the CDC COVID Data Tracker to monitor country conditions.

Here is how some major airlines, international hotel companies and big tour companies are planning for the resurgence of international travel.

Air Travel

In April 2019, there were about 1,400 international routes served by direct flights, according to John Grant, a senior analyst at OAG, which provides global travel data. That number dropped to 567 in April 2020 and has bounced back a bit to about 850 direct routes now, he said.

"We are unlikely to see all or even the majority of international markets that were served from the United States fully opened during the summer season, despite the best hopes of the airlines," Grant said.

As travel restrictions are loosened in some places, though, airlines are responding quickly. When Iceland announced on March 16 that it would allow all vaccinated travelers into the country, Delta Air Lines followed soon after with an announcement that in May it would resume its Iceland routes from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, and offer a new route from Boston.

Some airlines seem to be eyeing May to expand international flights as vaccines become more available, and it has been reported that the Biden administration may cancel travel restrictions for foreign nationals coming from Britain, Europe and Canada around mid-May.

Still, the market is very much in flux, Grant said, so even though airlines may be increasing their flight schedules, they will continue to adjust to demand, possibly consolidating some of the flights.

United Airlines plans to increase international flights, but will still be operating just about half of its 2019 schedule. Among the flights it is eyeing are those between Chicago and Tokyo's Haneda Airport and Tel Aviv, Israel. The company also plans to increase service from Los Angeles to Sydney and Tokyo Narita.

Beach destinations that are open to Americans have seen an increase in demand, and United is scheduling 90 more flights per week to or from the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central and South America than it did in May 2019.

At American Airlines, new routes are planned this summer from New York to Athens, Greece, and Tel Aviv, and from Miami to Suriname and Tel Aviv. (Israel has announced it would allow some vaccinated tourists into the country beginning May 23.) American also announced it was restarting a number of flights to Europe. Beyond that, the company won't speculate on where air travel will open next.

Hotel Stays

While global hotel companies are preparing for more guests, they are also keeping their focus on the health and cleaning protocols they put in place during the pandemic. Some have been adding on-site virus testing. In addition, so-called touchless technology, like phone apps for ordering food, will continue to be rolled out.

A report by Medallia Zingle, a communications software maker, found that 77% of consumers surveyed said the amount of in-person interaction required at a business will factor into their decision on whether or not they visit that business.

Marriott, one of the world's largest international hotel companies, with some 7,600 hotels under 30 brands, has implemented a set of practices it calls Commitment to Clean that includes sanitizing properties with hospital-grade disinfectants, using air-purifying systems and spreading out lobby furniture to facilitate social distancing. Some properties offer free coronavirus testing.

Hyatt, another major international brand, is also continuing to focus on cleanliness.

The company announced at the end of March that it was reopening its Htel du Palais in Biarritz, France, one of its last remaining closed properties. Almost all Hyatt properties have been open since last December, and in February the company began arranging for guests staying at Hyatt resorts in Latin America who planned to travel back to the United States to get free on-site coronavirus testing.

IHG's Kimpton brand, with 73 hotels in 11 countries, plans on modifying its protocols this summer where it feels they are safe and local ordinances allow — for example, bringing back the manager-hosted social hour, a guest favorite.

Tour Companies

Despite the uncertainties, demand for international tours is building, and like the airlines, tour companies are ramping up. Trips that emphasize the outdoors and uncrowded places are especially popular.

San Francisco-based Geographic Expeditions, which did not run any trips last summer, reported that its bookings have picked up significantly in the past few months. It plans to run 20 international trips this summer, both to familiar destinations such as the Galpagos, and some off the beaten path, including Pakistan and Namibia.

Abercrombie & Kent restarted its small-group and private trips last fall and early winter to places like Egypt, Costa Rica and Tanzania, and is continuing to expand choices as countries open up.

"There's been a noticeable spike in people calling who have had their first vaccine," said Stefanie Schmudde, vice president of product development and operations. Bookings in March rose more than 50% over bookings in February, according to the company.

Schmudde monitors global travel conditions intently and can rattle off names of countries that have been open to tourists for a few months and those she expects to open soon. She predicts Japan and China will open up this fall but does not expect Europe to welcome many visitors any time soon.

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